EBSD Analysis Technique

What is EBSD? It is an abbreviation of Electron Back Scatter Diffraction and also referred to as EBSP (Electron BackScattering Pattern). By using it in combination with SEM to manipulate electron beam and analyze pseudo-Kikuchi pattern, we measure microcrystalline orientation and crystal system.

Information

Measurement/Analysis Method

Overview

Unlike X-ray diffraction by which average information can be acquired, this technique allows acquisition of crystalline particle-based information. Also, from crystalline orientation data, it is possible to analyze the orientation distribution of crystalline particle, which is aggregate structure, and the crystalline phase distribution.

Features

  1. By using SEM, it is possible to analyze crystalline structure.
  2. Due to measurement at a low accelerating voltage of 10 kV or less, EBSP analysis with a high spatial/depth resolution is possible.
  3. High-speed measurement has been made possible.

Information Acquired through EBSD Analysis Technique

  • Crystalline orientation analysis

    Orientation mapping
    Displays the orientations of crystalline particle with different colors.
    Crystalline particle image
    Displays crystalline particle (defined by arbitrary grain boundary inclination angle)
    Crystal grain boundary image
    Displays crystal grain boundary (by inclination angle, corresponding grain boundary, etc.)
    Other analyses
    Normal pole figure/reverse pole figure, orientation distribution function (ODF), misorientation dispersion function (MDF)
  • Crystalline Phase Distribution Measurement

    Phase distribution image
    Displays difference in crystalline phase and area rate of phases

EBSP of Oxide: Example of Chip Capacitor

BSE

BSE
 

BaTiO3

BaTiO3

Phase map

Phase map

 

Ni

Ni

By combining EBSP with ultra-low voltage SEM in low vacuum mode, EBSD measurement of insulated object is possible even without electric conductivity processing, and measurement of orientation distribution of oxide in capacitor is also possible.

Sample preparation: non-deposition, vacuum mode: 4 Pa, accelerating voltage: 20 kV, measurement range: 10 square μm in 0.02 μm steps

Analysis of Steel Material after the Fatigue Test: SEM Fracture Surface Observation/EBSD Strain Distribution

Surface Fracture Face Observation by SEM

Surface Fracture Face Observation by SEM
     

Section Orientation/Strain Distribution Analysis by EBSD

Orientation distribution: IPF map

Strain distribution: KAM map

Strain distribution: KAM map

 

Orientation distribution: IPF map

Strain distribution: KAM map

Strain distribution: KAM map

By using EBSD, it is possible to investigate the orientation distribution of crystalline particles as well as strain distribution.

  • The KAM map reveals that at the portion subjected to ductile destruction, more strains are introduced compared to the portion subjected to fatigue destruction.
  • The KAM map shows the misorientation between a certain measurement point and the adjacent portion, and the misorientation becomes large as the degree of strain increases and no misorientation occurs if there is no strain.

Measurement of Crystalline Orientation of Neodymium Magnet by EBSD

Secondary electron image

Secondary electron image
 

Image Quality image

Image Quality image

Crystal grain boundary image

Crystal grain boundary image

 

Nd2Fe14B orientation distribution

Nd2Fe14B orientation distribution

Image of angle distribution in crystalline particle: 0° to 90° from (001)

Image of angle distribution in crystalline particle: 0° to 90° from (001)

 

Histogram of crystalline particle inclination angle (angle from normal line)

Histogram of crystalline particle inclination angle (angle from normal line)

By using EBSD, it is possible to investigate the orientation distribution of crystalline particles as well as their strain distribution.

  • By conducting orientation measurement of main phase in 100 nm pitch, it is possible to conduct C-axis orientation measurement, grain boundary check and misorientation distribution measurement.
  • The main phase is composed of crystalline particles of approx. 10 mm in size.
  • In most of main phases, C-axis [001] plane is orientated. It is slightly inclined in the range of 0° to 40°.

Element Distribution Analysis by Combination of FE-EPMA and EBSD

Dy FE-EPMA mapping

Dy FE-EPMA mapping

EBSP: Crystal Grain Boundary Image

Overlapping of a crystal grain boundary image (grain map) over EPMA mapping reveals that Dy exists inside particle and in grain boundary.
In this manner, we also propose a composite analysis method in which respective advantages of EBSD and FE-EPMA are utilized.

Distribution of residual austenite in steel: EBSD phase distribution image

As a wide range is measured at 100-nm resolution:

  • It is possible to obtain the distribution of submicron-size residual austenite phase (g-Fe phase) in a mm-order range.


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Basic Specifications of Ultra Low Voltage SEM-EBSD

SEM main body
Ultra 55 from Carl Zeiss
Accelerating voltage: 100 V to 30 kV
Resolution: 1.0 nm@15 kV, 1.7 nm@1 kV, 4.0 nm@100 V
EBSD analysis
Hikari High Speed EBSD Detector from TSL
Software OIMTM Ver 5.2
Analysis function
EDX: NSS300 from Thermo Electron

Lineup of our EBSD analysis devices

EBSP model SEM model Electron gun model Minimum analysis area Feature
Hikari High Speed EBSD Detector from TSL SUPRA VP40 from Zeiss Shot key FE <0.1μmφ New introduction: ultra high sensitivity, high resolution, high speed
Digiview IV from TSL, OIM System Ver.6.2 FE-SEM JSM-7100F from JEOL Shot key FE <0.1μmφ High resolution, transmission EBSP, wide range EBSP, supporting non-exposure to atmosphere
From TSL FE-SEM JSM-7001FA from JEOL Shot key FE <0.1μmφ High resolution
From TSL JSM-840F from JEOL Cold FE 0.5μmφ High resolution
Other general-purpose SEM-EBSD: two models

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